With 150 million native speakers and another 60 million non-native speakers, Russian is considered one of the world's major languages. It is the lingua franca in the former Soviet states.
Russian is the sole official language in Russia. In other countries, such as Belarus and Kazakhstan, it is the second official language.
Russian is an East Slavic language together with Ukrainian & Belarus and therefore has many lexical and grammatical similarities with them. Russian is written using the Cyrillic script.
The Russian language inflects more than the German language.
In Russian grammar there are 6 cases - nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative and instrumental - two more than there are in German. For the declension, the grammatical category animacy must also be taken into account in Russian.
Russian verbs are also inflected by gender in comparison to the German language.
The grammatical category "aspect" plays a very important role in Russian. The speaker of Russian must decide in each sentence whether to use the completed or uncompleted form of the verb.
The Russian full verb "to be" is not used in the present tense conjugated form. Instead of "I am here", Russian says "I here".
Pronouns can be omitted from a neutral utterance in Russian. "Are going home?" is a grammatically correct sentence in Russian. In German, on the other hand, pronouns cannot be omitted.
The individual clauses in the sentence (subject, predicate, object, verb, and the adverbial clause) are more easily interchangeable for each other than in German.
The word accent has a meaning-distinguishing function. In addition, there are seven different intonations of a sentence.
Although there are three grammatical genders in Russian, there are no definite and indefinite articles as in German (der, ein). If necessary, the definite and indefinite pronouns can be used to clarify the determination.
In the period after the October Revolution of 1917, Russia together with other 14 bordering states was part of the Soviet Union (CCCP = Союз Советских Социалистических Республик), which existed until the end of 1991. Russia has officially called itself the Russian Federation since 1990.